Coaster brake

A coaster brake is a back pedal brake, typically found on bicycles ridden for transport in the Netherlands and Denmark. 

The brake is operated by applying presssure on the pedals by backpedalling, much as you would use a brake pedal in a motor vehicle; this operates a brake in the rear hub of the bicycle.

Because there is no cable operating the brake, coaster brakes require less maintenance than hand-operated brakes.

Images / Videos: 

Coaster Brake Video